The Girona shipwreck in Northern Ireland


Background – The Spanish Armada

The Girona was a Spanish Galleass, part of the mighty Spanish Armada that in 1588 set out to conquer England. After the defeat of the Armada in the English Channel, the Spanish ships sailed north into the North Sea and then south-west past the coasts of Scotland and north-western and western Ireland. Due to heavy storms as many as 24 ships were lost to the weather.

Problems Begin

The ship originally had a complement of 121 sailors and 186 soldiers. However, while anchored for repairs on the rudder at Killybegs, harbor, Donegal, she came across about 1000 other Spaniards, the remnants of two Armada ships that had run aground, the Santa Maria Encoronada and the Dunquesa Santa Ana. Rather than stay in Ireland where they were in danger of being found by English soldiers on the look of for Spaniards, Don Alonso Martinez, captain of the Encoronada, decided to load everyone on the galleass Girona and sail for then Catholic Scotland. There they could rest, repair the ship and then set sail for Spain.

The Sinking

With the rudder fixed she sailed from Killybegs to the open sea. It rounded Inishowen but the rudder was again damaged in extremely bad weather. With fierce winds blowing the ship towards the shore, the Spanish tried to keep her from grounding by rowing. However, on the midnight of October 28 it run aground off Lacada Point and sunk. Of the estimated 1300 persons on board, less than 10 survived.

Hundreds of bodies were washed ashore and some were buried on St. Cuthbert’s cemetery in Dunluce.

The destruction of the galleass Girona is commemorated on the reverse side of banknotes printed by the First Trust Bank in Northern Ireland.

In 1967 and 68 a team of Belgian divers discovered the wreck and brought up the largest treasure ever recovered from a wreck. Much is on display in the Ulster Museum in Belfast.

Return from The Girona to List of famous shipwrecks

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Old Layde Church, a hidden church in Northern Ireland

The Mysterious Old Layde Church

Nestled among the glens of the North Antrim coast is Old Layde church, a fascinating and mysterious place that until recently was not even signposted. In our almost five years in Ireland I have visited it a number of times and have taken nearly all our visitors there and no-one regretted visiting. If you take even a casual interest in Christian history then the church is really worth a visit.

What makes this church so special?

Lets begin with the basics. Layde church is located in stunning surroundings. The glens of the Antrim coast are one of the most scenic places in Ireland. Layde church is build on the spot where one of the smaller glens meets the ocean. You can just sit on its grassy slops and enjoy the view. On a clear day you can see Scotland a mere 14 miles across the water.

But scenery is only a portion of the fascination. The truth is, Old Layde Church is simply different from most other churches.

First, its location.

Local tourist notes state that Layde was the parish church of Cushendall, a seaside town about one mile away. But, why build a parish church a mile away from where the parishioners live? In olden times of unpaved pathways in rainy times, a mile long walk in the mud would certainly not have been a prospect even the most faithful parishioners would relish.

Second, location again.

In contrast to parish churches with lofty towers visible for miles, with Layde, unless you know exactly where the church is located you will not find it. It only becomes visible 70 meters before you enter the church yard.

Built at the confluence of two hills at a point where its glen takes a steep decline towards the sea, and surrounded with tall vegetation, the church is only visible from far out into the ocean.

Not surprisingly, it is sometimes called “The Hidden Church”.

Why would a church be built to be hidden?

A local amateur historian with an extensive knowledge of Antrim historical places gave me the following explanation:

The church’s earliest mention comes from the 14th century, but the church is probably much older dating back possibly to the high Middle Ages.

At such a time when there were no roads connecting the Antrim coast with the Irish hinterland and the Antrim boglands cut the coast off from the rest of the country, the coastal town did most of their trading with Scotland just across the water and much more easily accessible. This is evident even today by the many Scottish surnames along the Antrim coast indicating interaction and intermarriage.

During the high Middle Ages parts of Scotland refused to conform to the ecclesiastical authorities of the time.

Scottish monarchs tried to suppress them but the remoteness and inaccessibility of the western Scottish coastlands meant that nonconformists survived and flourished. That is, until Margaret of England married Alexander III of Scotland and became queen of Scotland.

Being particularly zealous she set out to eradicate some of what she considered to be “strange” Scottish customs; and did so with determination and a vengeance.

Could it be that Scottish non-conformists tried to find refuge among the more tolerant lands of Antrim?

Could it be that Layde church was built to cater for the needs of a people who couldn’t practice their faith in their homeland?

My historian friend was convinced that this was indeed the case.
Freedom of choice

I stood many a time at the ruined Old Layde Church trying to visualise with my imagination boatloads of people sailing across the straits between Scotland and Ireland hoping to worship God in freedom according to their conscience.

There are some things for which it is worth making sacrifices. Freedom to believe is one. A thought worth remembering in a land where religious intolerance and hatred has produced a lot of hurt.

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Lacada Point

Lacada point is a rock promontory that juts into the ocean a few hundred yards west of Giant’s Causeway. It is typical of the rugged yet beautiful Antrim Coast. Through the centuries a number of ships have floundered there. But Lacada is famous primarily because of one incident the most famous of all shipwrecks there. On the night of October 28, 1588, the galleass Girona, one of the many ships of the mighty Spanish Armada, met her tragic end off Lacada with most of the 1300 men on board dying. Some survived and together with other Spanish survivors from the Spanish Armada have given rise to theories about the Black Irish. Many of the treasures recovered from the Girona are currently on display in the recently renovated Ulster Museum in Belfast.

Lacada is no longer accessible to visitors. You can see it from the vantage point of the cliffs around it and Giants Causeway, but it is not allowed to go down because the path can be dangerous. Because of the dramatic landscape and possibly its notorious past Lacada has been a point of interest for photographers.

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Carrickfergus Castle – history comes alive in a great social events venue.

Northern Ireland Travel – Carrickfergus Castle There are many Irish castles but Carrickfergus Castle is probably the best preserved of the old castles in Northern Ireland and certainly worth visiting. It is a typical example of how castles in the Middle Ages looked like.

The castle has a banquet hall that is perfect for those thinking of a corporate medieval banquet or romantic castle wedding. If you are thinking of getting married at Carrickfergus castle click here, for more information.

It is ideal to visit with children as it easy to access it and the life-size figures will make history come alive. You can even host worry-free children’s birthday parties there.


Northern Ireland Travel – Carrickfergus Castle – How to get there

It is easily accessible from Belfast, just 15 minutes away by car on the M5 north and then A2 along Belfast Lough through Whiteabbey and Jordanstown.

If you are staying in Belfast you can arrange a visit when it suits. If you are staying further afield, you might want to combine a visit to Carrickfergus Castle with other sights on a day tour.

Carrickfergus is also the name of the town where the castle is situated.

Northern Ireland Travel – Carrickfergus Castle – What’s in a Name

“Carrick” means “rock” in Gaelic. The name Carrickfergus means “the rock of Fergus” and derives, according to legend, from king Fergus who died nearby in the sea during a storm.

Carroickfergus Castle, Northern Ireland Travel – The History of Carrickfergus Castle

The castle was built on a rock promontory by John de Courcy in 1177 to serve as his base and guard the entrance to Belfast. John was a Anglo-Norman knight who conquered Ulster for England and ruled it in theory as a vassal to the king of England, but in practice as an independent prince. However, in 1204 he was defeated by another Norman, Hugh de Lacy.

In 1210 King John captured the castle and it henceforth was a base of British rule in Ulster.

Northern Ireland Travel – Carrickfergus Castle: Famous Battles, Famous Events

Carrickfergus Castle has seen its share of important battles and events.

Northern Ireland Travel – Carrickfergus Castle History: Edward the Bruce – 1315

Edward the Bruce (brother of the famous Robert the Bruce) invaded Ulster from Scotland and by 1315 conquered all except Carrickfergus. In 1315 he laid siege to the castle. An attempt to relieve the castle from the sea was defeated. The defenders launched a surprise attack on the Scots and took some captive. According to some sources, they killed some of the prisoners and ate them! The castle surrendered in 1316, only to be recaptured by the English in 1318. The story of this war is told in the audio visual presentation in the castle, which you must see.

carrickfergus-castle-king-william-statue-2 Northern Ireland Travel – Carrickfergus Castle History: King William – 1690

Carrickfergus castle is also famous because King William of Orange (William III of England) landed his army here in 1690.

He then marched south and camped at Scarva village for training, a place they still re-enact the battle of the Boyne every year on July 13, the famous Sham Fight, before proceeding to the River Boyne where he defeated the Catholic forces establishing Protestant ascendancy.

There is a plaque commemorating the landing.

Northern Ireland Travel – Carrickfergus Castle History: Vive le France! – 1760 and the Seven Years War

Carrickfergus castle also played a role in the career of the famous French privateer, Francois Thurot. In late 1759 Francois set sail with a small squadron of ships to raid British shipping and coasts in Northern Ireland and Scotland. After bad weather prevented him from raiding Londonderry Francois, desperate for supplies, landed 600 men and attacked Carrickfergus.

The castle had a handful of defenders and after fierce fighting surrendered. The French looted the castle and the town and set sail. While trying to escape they were intercepted by three British warships. His vessel Belle-Isle was attacked and boarded by the Aeolus but Francois Thurot was already dead, having been killed by a musket shot.

Northern Ireland Travel – Carrickfergus Castle History: American Adventures – 1778

Carrickfergus and the waters beyond it became the scene of possibly the only time the American Navy scored a victory against the Royal Navy without having an overwhelming advantage.

The year is 1778 and the American Revolution is in full swing. A number of American captains including John Paul Jones with his ship, the Ranger, set out to raid British merchant shipping in the Atlantic. Jones enter the Irish Sea where he can operate with some impunity as the majority of the British Fleet is either fighting in America or assembled in the Channel to avert a feared French attack.

After failing to attack Whiteheaven on the coast of England, Jones sails to Carrickfergus to attack the British ship Drake. On the morning of April 24 the Drake set sail to meet the Ranger and after an hour long battle 15 miles to sea from Carrickfergus the Drake surrendered and was taken to France.

Jones’ victory caused a sensation – the Royal Navy could be defeated. To be fair to the Drake however, it was only a merchant vessel, under supplied with war material, and fitted with guns that showed remarkable instability when fired. Key officers were absent during the fight and replaced by novices without naval experience or knowledge of the vessel. The North Channel Naval Battle as it came to be called, was one of the better known episodes of the naval war between Britain and America.


Northern Ireland Travel – Carrickfergus Castle: Our Visit

We visited Carrickfergus a number of times. When you plan your visit, check Opening times to avoid disappointment. Plan to spend about an hour though you can easily spend two if you are keen.

Carrickfergus Castle: Our Visit – The Carrickfergus Castle Keep

First go to the Keep, the 27.5 meter high tower were most of the function took place. In it you can see a model of the castle and the area as it would have been in ages past. You can climb to the first floor that was the main reception and dinning area and where the king and the knights held council. It is nicely maintained and can be let out for wedding receptions, business meals and other functions. On the top floor were the living quarters, sparsely furnished but spacious. Castles in the Middle Ages were not build for comfort but defense. Hence the sparse decorations and spartan environment. But you do have a a vantage point to look out. Have a look out the window for a great view over the Belfast Lough, or play some of the games medieval kings and knights might have played.

afreeca2-2 Northern Ireland Travel, Carrickfergus Castle: Our Visit – The Grounds

Once you are finished with the Keep, walk through the Carrickfergus castle grounds. Scattered around are life size human figures that represent either soldiers defending the castle or important persons associated with it. You will notice John de Courcy and his wife Affreca Godfredsdorrir, the viking princess of Mann who married John but was missing her home in the Isle of Man and so is looking nostalgically out to sea.

Make sure you visit the chapel and the “murder hole” next to it (they are easy to miss) from where they would pelt attackers trapped by the portcullis (a trap at the castle entrance) with rocks, arrows or douse them with boiling oil.

Northern Ireland Travel, Carrickfergus Castle:Children’s Birthday Parties:

The vaults are available to hire for a 2 hour period between the hours of –

10.30 – 15.00 Mon – Sat (Winter)

10.30 – 17.00 Mon – Sat (Summer)

A maximum of 25 children are permitted, for every 8 children 1 adult is admitted free of charge to allow for adequate supervision.

Northern Ireland Travel, Carrickfergus Castle: Opening times:

The castle is open all year round at the following times:


Mon – Sat 10am – 4pm Sun – 2pm – 4pm

April / May / September

Mon – Sat 10am – 6pm Sun – 2pm – 6pm

June / July / August

Mon – Sat 10am – 6pm Sun – 12pm – 6pm

Last admission 30 minutes before closing

Northern Ireland Travel, Carrickfergus Castle: Admission charges:

Adult – £3.00

Children / Senior Citizens – £1.50

Family (2 adults, 2 children) – £8.00

Group rates available (10 plus must be pre-booked)

For further information, you can contact:

Carrickfergus Castle

Marine Highway


Co. Antrim

BT38 7BG

Tel: (028) 9335 1273

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Titanic Band – heroes at the moment of disaster

The Titanic Band

The Titanic music band added a sense of heroism to this tragic event. Witnesses agree that the band played on till the end and it is certain that their memory will live as a memorial for generations to come.

The key person in the Titanic music band was Wallace Hartley. He was born in Colne, Lincoshire, could play the violin well, and had worked for years as a musician on ocean liners. On the Titanic band he was the leader of a quintet and their job was to play at church services and during tea and after dinner. In addition to Hartley’s five there was a trio who played at the reception hall. They played a piano, cello and violin. The two groups worked separately but on the night of the sinking joined together, possibly for the first time.

Titanic Band – Music even as the boat is sinking

Why did the Titanic band play even as the boat was sinking? They hoped to keep the passengers calm and upbeat and also the crew who had the daunting task of organizing the lifeboats. In this respect their determination to continue playing in the freezing cold even as it became apparent that there was no hope for the boat of for them must surely mark these men as heroes.

Which was their last song?

Hartley had once said that if he was on a sinking ship he would want his last song to be either “Nearer My God to Thee”, a beautiful hymn composed by English Christian poet Sarah Adams; or “O God our Help in Ages Past” by the famous hymn composer and father of English hymnology, Isaac Watts. Survivors testified that the Titanic band played “Nearer My God to Thee”. This is what the newspapers reported and this is what was traditionally accepted in the years since the tragedy. Wireless operator Harold Bride by contrast, reported that the band’s last song was “Autumn”. Probably he meant either the hymn “Autumn” or the “Songe d’ Automne” which was popular at the time. Since none of the band members survived we will never know for sure, but “Nearer My God to Thee” is the one ingrained in the public consciousness. Below are the words of this hymn.

In their Memory

Hartley’s body was found two weeks after the disaster, still wearing the band uniform. It was sent by boat to England. His funeral was attended by about one thousand people while many more thousands lined the streets to pay their respects to his funeral procession. There is a memorial erected in Colne dedicated to him and also a plaque in his home in Dewsbury, West Yorkshire. There is also a plaque to the band’s memory naming all eight members in Liverpool’s Philarmonic Hall. And so, the journey that started with the construction of the boat in Belfast Northern Ireland, came to an end.

Nearer My God to Thee – Lyrics

Nearer, my God, to Thee, nearer to Thee!

E’en though it be a cross that raiseth me;

Still all my song would be nearer, my God, to Thee,

Nearer, my God, to Thee, nearer to Thee!


Though like the wanderer, the sun gone down,

Darkness be over me, my rest a stone;

Yet in my dreams I’d be nearer, my God, to Thee,

Nearer, my God, to Thee, nearer to Thee!


There let the way appear steps unto heav’n;

All that Thou sendest me in mercy giv’n;

Angels to beckon me nearer, my God, to Thee,

Nearer, my God, to Thee, nearer to Thee!


The with my waking thoughts bright with Thy praise,

Out of my stony griefs Bethel I’ll raise;

So by my woes to be nearer, my God, to Thee,

Nearer, my God, to Thee, nearer to Thee!


Or if on joyful wing, cleaving the sky,

Sun, moon, and stars forgot, upwards I fly,

Still all my song shall be, nearer, my God, to Thee,

Nearer, my God, to Thee, nearer to Thee!

More Pages About the Titanic Tragey

Quick Titanic Facts

Titanic: The Beginning

The Titanic Sinking Part 1

The Titanic Sinking Part 2

The Titanic Sinking Part 3

The Mystery Ship that could have saved more people

The Passengers

The Survivors

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St Gobban Church

Ireland’s smallest church?

St. Gobbans is a tiny church located in the village of Portbraddan on the west side of White Park Bay. As with the rest of the North Antrim coastline, White Park Bay is a beautiful piece of landscape with a long white sand beach. Portbraddan which consists of only a handful of houses is as quaint and quiet a place as you can get in Northern Ireland. The tiny church is privately owned. At 10 feet by 4 (3m by 1.4m) it is considered the smallest in Ireland though there is another even smaller, St. Lasseraghs, on the cliffs above but which lies in ruins.

The church is dedicated to St. Gobban, a famous person in the mosaic of Irish religion and the island’s foremost architect during the 6th and 7th centuries AD. He was born at Malahide near Dublin around AD 560. His reputation as an architect was such that he was employed by many different people to build churches and other buildings for them. In fact the tales told about him sound so wonderful that some historians consider him to be a mythical person. However, he was probably a historical person but simply his life and work were so embellished by subsequent generations that his story took on mythical details.

To Get There

Park you car as near to the seaside as you can and walk to the church. A visit will not take more than a few minutes though once there you might want to stay in the area and enjoy the ocean breeze.

Being a small and relatively little known place, a visit to the church is best if it is part of a day out. You can either do it when you are touring the Antrim Coast. Or, you can simply decide to have a day on the beach in which case White Park Bay is an excellent option and in the process you can visit the church and the other landmarks in the vicinity

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Titanic Facts – the Sinking

Titanic Facts – Titanic 1912 Sinking continued

After the collision with the iceberg water began to pour in quickly. Within ten minutes the water levels in the front compartments had risen more than 10 meters. Thomas Andrews, the engineer who oversaw the construction of the Titanic, and who was traveling on her maiden voyage to detect possible flaws and areas for improvement, was asked to assess the damage. He soon realized that the ship’s fate was sealed. At around midnight the captain, who had already reached the bridge alarmed by the jolt of the collision. Andrews brought him the news that the ship would sink within two hours. He immediately (around 25 minutes past midnight) gave the order that help should be called and evacuation procedures begin. The lifeboats could only take about half of the people on board. Women and children should go first.

Titanic Facts – Carpathia races to the rescue

The distress call was picked up by the land station at Cape Race in Newfoundland, 375 miles away and by a number of boats the closest of which was the steam liner Carpathia, 58 miles away. The Carpathia raced towards Titanic but the distance and her top speed of only 17 knots meant that it would take four hours for her to arrive. In an effort to reach the Titanic as quickly as possible captain Arthur Roston ordered that all supplies of hot water to passengers be stopped and the hot water be maintained for the steam engines.

Titanic Facts – The Crew Work to Save Lives

The Titanic crew was divided in two teams. From the moment the captain gave the order they were able to launch about one lifeboat every ten minutes, testimony to the crew’s efficiency and rigour with which they undertook the task. By 2:00 in the morning all 16 main lifeboats had been launched and now the collapsible lifeboats were being launched. The water had reached the bridge level.

Titanic Facts – the Final Moments

Just before 2:20 power went off. The wireless could no longer be operated and the lights went off. At nearly the same time, as the bow plunged deeper into the ocean the stern rose high in the air. The forward funnel broke off and fell in the water. Immediately afterward the pressure of the weight of the stern in the air broke the ship in two. The bow sunk quickly; the stern fell on the surface of the ocean, stayed there for a short while and then in turn it sunk. By 2:20 the Titanic was gone. The history of Titanic as a passenger carrying liner that began with her construction in the Belfast shipyards in Northern Ireland was over.

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History of Titanic – the fascinating story of the Titanic’s construction

History of Titanic

In the previous page we gave some True Titanic Facts.

Now we move to the history of Titanic. Here we will run you through some of the key events and people involved with the Titanic especially as it relates to Northern Ireland.


The Titanic was conceived at a dinner party in a London mansion one fateful evening in 1907. There two men met, Bruce Ismay, who was Chairman of White Star Lines, and Lord James Pirrie who was Chairman of Harland and Wolff. The topic of the discussion was luxury travel in the oceans. The two of them agree to build a new class of liner that would be the ultimate in luxury and elegance. And so the history of Titanic began.

The actual work on the class of ships started on the Olympic, the Titanic’s sister ship, in December 1908 and completed in 1910.

The Construction of the Titanic

Work on the Titanic began in March 1909 and completed in 1912. A third ship, the Britannic, larger than the previous two but belonging to the same Olympic class, was completed in 1914. Harland and Wolff was chosen not only because it had the largest shipyard in the world, a fitting place to build what would then be the world’s largest liner. It was also a sign of the close co-operation of the two companies. Indeed, Harland and Wolff eventually built a total of 70 liners for White Star Line. These three Olympic class liners were build to compete with the equally luxurious and fast Mauritania and Lusitania of the rival Cunard Line company.

The site where the Titanic was built can be seen in Belfast harbour and is being developed into a historic monument. Three thousand Northern Irish workers worked on the construction of the Titanic out of a total of 15,000 workers in Harland and Wolff. The Titanic hull was launched on May 31, 1911. Thousands of residents gathered to cheer it along. It was a momentous day. Here is how a local newsletter reported it:

“The ship glided down to the river with a grace and dignity which for the moment gave one the impression that she was conscious of her own strength and beauty, and there was a roar of cheers as the timbers by which she had been supported yielded to the pressure put upon them. She took to the water as if she was eager for the baptism.”

She was outfitted by March 1912. On April 2, 1912 she set sail from Belfast for Southampton. The history of Titanic construction would be incomplete without a brief reference to lifeboats.

The Construction of the Titanic – Lifeboats

Why didn’t the titanic lifeboats suffice for all passengers? This is a question many people ask. At the time the Titanic was being built Board of Trade regulations required that ships over 10,000 tons carry 16 lifeboats and also enough rafts and floats for an additional capacity of 50% the capacity of the lifeboats (or 75% if there were no watertight compartments on the ship). The problem was that the regulations were fast becoming outdated. When the regulations had been set in 1894 the largest ships displaced a mere 13,000 tons, whereas the Titanic displaced a full 46,328 tons.

The titanic carried 16 lifeboats plus four folding ones called Collapsibles and so was within regulations but did not carry enough for all passengers and crew when fully loaded. Alexander Carlisle who had been chief draughtsman at the initial stages of construction had suggested 48 lifeboats be carried but because of objections the suggestion was never carried out.

Have you checked the True Titanic Facts?

Now read about the Sinking of the Titanic part 1?; part 2; and part 3.

Read also about the Mystery Ship that could have saved many more passengers but somehow didn’t. Read also about the heroic Titanic Band that played music to the end, as well as the Passengers, some famous and most not but still precious human beings whose loss was tragic or their salvation a feat. Read also about the survivors.

By reading all the above pages we hope you will have a good grasp of the history of Titanic.

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Titanic Survivors – Rescued from the Tragedy

Titanic Survivors

The Titanic sank around 2:20 in the morning of April 15, 1912. The saddest of Titanic facts is that as a result of the sinking 1517 lives were lost with just 706 being rescued. The survivors were picked up by the ship Carpathia beginning at just after 4:00 in the morning, less than two hours after the sinking. The California arrived about two hours later but all survivors had been picked already by the Carpathia. The Carpathia set sail for New York arriving there on Thursday, April 18 while the California stayed on a little longer in case there were more survivors, but finding none eventually went on her way.

Titanic Survivors

Of the 329 passengers in first class, 199 survived or just over 60%. Of the 285 passengers in second class 119 survived or just under 42%. Of the 710 passengers in third class only 174 survived or 24.5%. Of the 899 crew 214 survived which is 23.8%. As is evident survival rates were much higher among the first and second class than among the third class and the crew. Of the men on board only 20% survived whereas 75% of the women did.

Titanic Passengers – those who lost their life

Most of the Titanic passengers who died, did so from the cold. The water temperature was at around freezing point or just below. In such water temperatures a person can die in as little as 15 minutes to at most an hour or so. Others died from falling objects especially when the stern rose high in the air, the forward funnel broke off and fell in the water, and eventually when the ship broke in two and the stern fell with great power on the water. Many undoubtedly drowned.


After the accident boats went out to recover bodies. All in all a total of 333 bodies were recovered. About half were buried in Halifax, Canada, while other bodies that were identified were shipped to their families in Europe and North America. Floating artifacts that were recovered are displayed in the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. Several memorials have been erected in both sides of the Atlantic. One of these is in Belfast, Northern Ireland, in the Belfast City Hall.

Read Also

Quick Titanic Facts

The Construction of the Titanic

The Sinking Part I

The Sinking Part II

The Sinking Part III

The Mystery Ship

The Passengers

The Survivors

The Titanic Band

Return from Titanic Survivors to List of Famous Shipwrecks

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